The church of St. Stanislaus was built on the site of the former home of the first Catholic Metropolitan of the Russian Empire, Stanislav Bogush-Sestrentsevich. The construction of the temple went from 1823 to 1825, the author of the project was the Italian architect David Visconti. Upon completion of the construction, the church was consecrated in the name of St. Stanislaw by the 94-year-old Metropolitan Bogush-Sestrentsevich, and a year later the metropolitan died and was buried in the church.
Church of St. Stanislava became the second Catholic church in St. Petersburg, following the cathedral of St. Catherine. Despite the small size of the church, the parish grew rapidly, and by 1917 the number of parishioners exceeded 10,000.